0 crossing – see zero crossing.
0 dBFS – a digital audio reference level equal to full scale. 0 dBFS is the absolute maximum voltage level that can be converted by an A/D converter and has a digital code consisting of all 1s. Therefore, no digital level can exceed 0 dBFS. When voltage exceeds that level clipping occurs. dB FS is used to express the level of a digital signal, and should not be for analog signals. Sometimes designated dB(FS) or dB Full Scale.
0 dBm – a power level of 1 mw, which equals a voltage of 0.775 V into a 600-ohm load, the common load for professional audio equipment when this standard was set. The standard of 0 dBu was also chosen to equals 0 dBm. See dbm and dBu.
0 dB(SPL) – the commonly used zero reference point for the threshold of human hearing with a sound pressure in air of 20 μPa (RMS) at 1000 Hz. Sometimes designated dBSPL.
0 dBu – a voltage level of 0.775 V into a 600-ohm load, which was chosen because it also equals 0 dBm. See dbm, dBu, and +4 dBu.
0 dBV – the voltage level of 1 V, which equals 2.218 dBu. See dBu and -10 dBV.
0 dBVU – see 0 VU.
0 VU – the target level for audio signals being measured with a VU meter, which is sometimes indicated as 100%. It is equivalent to +4 dBu with a 1000-Hz tone. Sometimes incorrectly indicated as 0 dBVU.
⅛-inch phone plug – see miniature phone plug.
⅛ space – refers to a loudspeaker that is placed in a corner where three surfaces join, such as two walls and a floor. Sound sources placed near surfaces project more energy toward the listening space. A speaker placed into ⅛ space produces approximately 3 dB more sound power than one in quarter space and 6 dB more than one in half space.
¼-20 – see microphone thread sizes.
¼-inch phone plug – see phone plug.
¼ space – see quarter space.
¼-inch TRS – see phone plug and TRS.
¼-inch TS – see phone plug and TS.
¼-wavelength null – the point at which phase cancellation occurs when a sound wave reflects off a wall and interferes with another soundwave that is ¼ of the wavelength of the first. This often occurs when a monitor or speaker is placed a short distance from the front wall. The null can be more than 20 dB deep, so speaker placement is critical for good bass response. The frequency of the front-wall null can be calculated by dividing the speed of sound by 4 and dividing that by the distance from the wall to the voice coil. Moving the monitor toward the wall increases the offending frequency, but also increases the overall bass response as it approaches half space condition. The variation in frequency with distance of the monitor from the wall is shown in the table below. The frequency of the rear-wall null depends on the position of the listener. Nulls should be controlled using acoustic treatment. Additional nulls occur whenever the wavelength of a harmonic is a fractional multiple of the fundamental wavelength having an odd number in the numerator. See also ¾-wavelength null.
⅓-octave – see one-third octave.
½ space – see half space.
⅝-27 – see microphone thread sizes.
¾-wavelength null – The point at which phase cancellation occurs when a soundwave reflects off a wall and interferes with another soundwave that is ¾ of the wavelength of the first. The frequency of this null depends on the position of the listener within the room. Nulls should be controlled using acoustic treatment. Additional nulls occur whenever the wavelength of a harmonic is a fractional multiple of the fundamental wavelength having an odd number in the numerator. See also ¼-wavelength null.
1-bit ADC and DAC – a sampling technique in which a higher sampling rate is offset by a lower number of bits, with only a single bit needed for each sample. This technique is used in delta-sigma modulation.
1/f noise – see flicker noise.
1-pole, 2-pole, 3-pole, etc. – see slope, definition #3.
1U – see U.
1:1 – an exact copy or duplicate of a file, usually of a master. Also called an X-copy
1.33:1 – see 4 x 3.
1.78:1 – see 16 x 9.
-10 – usually refers to -10 dBV.
10-band equalizer – see octave equalizer.
10-dB rule – a general rule of thumb that states when using multiple microphones in close proximity, there should be at least a 10-dB signal difference between them to avoid phase problems. See also three-to-one rule.
-10 dBV – the standard voltage reference level for consumer audio devices equal to 0.316 Vrms, although it can be found a some pro audio gear. When solid state audio equipment was first introduced, some less expensive amplifiers had performance issues, such as lower slew rates. Establishing an operating level for consumer gear lower than the professional standard of +4 dBu allowed the consumer gear to have acceptable performance without significantly increasing the cost.
10-segment display – see segmented display.
12 – short for the AKG C-12.
12-string guitar – see twelve-string guitar.
12-TET – 12-Tone Equal Temperament. See equal temperament. Also abbreviated as 12TET, 12tET, 12tet, 12-ET, 12ET, or 12et.
12th fret-12 inch rule – a rule of thumb for the initial microphone placement when recording acoustic guitar, which states that the microphone should be aimed at the 12th fret and placed about 12 inches away from it.
13-pin cable – a cable used with guitars having divided or hexaphonic pickup systems. The output can be connected to a guitar pitch-to-MIDI converter, a guitar synthesizer, or a guitar modeler system. The cable carries the output from each of the six strings or the hex pickup and the signal from the regular pickups, as well as several control signals and phantom power, if available. The cable does not carry MIDI data, but requires a pitch-to-MIDI converter.
14-segment display – see segmented display.
16⅔ rpm – half the playing speed of the 33⅓-rpm LP, used for special applications such as long narrations, but never considered a standard playing speed.
16-bit – (1) Can refer to a datapath width. (2) Can refer to a bit depth.
16-segment display – see segmented display.
16-track – an analog recording tape format with 16 parallel tracks usually on 1-inch tape used for multitrack recordings, similar to 8-track tapes. See also chart of multitrack tape formats.
16 x 9 (16:9) – the standard aspect ratio for an HDTV screen, also expressed as 1.78:1, meaning the screen has 1.78 units of horizontal width for every 1 unit of vertical height. Video and TV images using other aspect ratios will be displayed on an 16 x 9 screen either with black bars on the top and bottom of the image (letterboxing), with black bars on the sides of the image (pillarboxing), or with bars on all four sides (windowboxing). Standard-definition TV had a 4 x 3 aspect ratio.
-18 dBFS – see -20 dBFS.
100-volt system – a type of loudspeaker distribution system typically used for PAs where transformers are used at the output of a power amplifier and at each speaker to provide a constant voltage of 100 volts so that multiple speakers can be used. See also 70-volt system.
140 – see EMT 140.
160 – short for the dbx 160 Compressor.
175 – short for Universal Audio 175.
176 – short for Universal Audio 176.
180-gram vinyl – an LP that is thicker having 180 g of vinyl per disc instead of the normal 120 g to 140 g. These discs are considered to be audiophile grade since they resist warping and some claim they have other sonic improvements. An even higher grade is the 200-gram disc.
1073 – short for Neve 1073.
1080i – the designation for a high-definition television broadcast standard that provides a picture with an interlaced image and 1080 lines of vertical resolution, one of the standards of the ATSC. It uses a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9 (1920 pixels x 1080 lines) with 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. Sometimes shown as 1080I. Also called full high-definition (FHD).
1080p – the designation for a high-definition television picture with a progressive scan image and 1080 lines of vertical resolution. It uses a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9 (1920 pixels x 1080 lines) with 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. 1080p is usually provided from a Blu-ray disc, as there is currently no progressive-scan broadcast standard. Only television sets designed for progressive scan can display this mode. Sometimes shown as 1080P. Also called full high-definition (FHD).
1176 – short for Universal Audio 1176.
1394 – see IEEE 1394.
1604 – short for API 1604 mixing console.
1630 – short for Sony PCM-1630.
2-bus – the bus carrying the main stereo (left and right) output from a mixing console or DAW.
2-bus compression – see mix bus compression.
2-pop – a tone used in television and filmmaking production that provides a method of synchronizing sound and picture. It uses a 1000-Hz tone at a level of -20 dB that is one frame long and is placed 2 seconds before the start of the program. Also called a sync tone. See also SMPTE leader.
2-sided hit – see A side.
2-to-1 rule of ambience – a rule that states that a cardioid microphone must be placed twice as far from a sound source as an omnidirectional microphone to capture an equal amount of room ambience.
2-to-3 pull down – see 3:2 pull down.
2-track – an analog recording tape format in which there are two parallel tracks on the tape, with each track taking up half of the tape width. Originally this format was used with reel-to-reel tape machines using ¼-inch tape. The two tracks were monophonic and were played in opposite directions. In the late 1950s, this format began to be used in recording studios for stereo recordings with both tracks played simultaneously in the same direction. This format soon gave way to multitrack recorders using three tracks and four tracks. Also called half-track. See also chart of multitrack tape formats.
2U – see U.
2-way radio – see two-way radio.
2-way system – a speaker system in which a crossover splits the incoming signal into separate high- and low-frequency signals and sends the lows to a woofer and highs to a tweeter. This design improves the efficiency and enhances the clarity of the speakers. Also called a 2-way speaker system. See also 3-way system and 4-way system.
2:3 pull down – see 3:2 pull down.
2/4 time – see time signature.
2.4 GHz band – the range of radio frequencies from 2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz, part of the ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) band of frequencies within the UHF region. Among other things, it is used by some manufacturers for the transmission of wireless microphone signals. See also VHF, 700 MHz band, 5 GHz band, and 6 GHz band.
2.5-mm subminiature plug – see subminiature plug.
-20 dBFS – the unofficial standard for the level represented as 0 VU (an output of +4 dBu). This is the standard used by NPR as well as most video and film production companies in the US, but some manufacturers use other values. In the UK, a level of -18 dBFS is often used.
24.1.10 – one configuration of speakers for immersive sound used in theaters. It consists of 24 front, side, and back speakers, one effects channel (the “.1”), and ten height channels (the “.10”). Other configurations are also used for theaters, but home systems typically would use 5.1.2, 5.1.4, 7.1.2, 7.1.4, 9.1.2, or 9.1.4.
24-bit – can refer to a bit depth.
24p – a video format operating at 24 frames per second, with progressive scanning. Originally used for editing film-oriented video, it has become more popular due to its film-like motion characteristics. It also makes the transition of film to video much easier and makes using digital video in motion pictures smoother and more natural looking, especially high-definition video and special effects.
24-track – an analog recording tape format with 24 parallel tracks usually on 1- or 2-inch tape used for multitrack recordings, similar to 8-track tapes. See also chart of multitrack tape formats.
24/96 – shorthand for digital audio data with a bit depth of 24 bits and a sample rate of 96 kHz, one of the levels of high-resolution audio, the other being 24/192.
24/192 – shorthand for digital audio data with a bit depth of 24 bits and a sample rate of 192 kHz, one of the levels of high-resolution audio, the other being 24/96.
200-gram vinyl – see 180-gram vinyl.
250 – short for the Telefunken ELA M 250. See AKG C-12.
251 – short for the Telefunken ELA M 251. See AKG C-12.
2160p – see 4K resolution.
3-channel stereo – see three-channel stereo.
3-dB down point – the point where the voltage level (dB) has decreased by 20 × log (1/ √ 2 ) = -3.0103 dB. It is one way of defining the cut-off frequency. Also called -3 dB point or half-power point.
-3 dB point – see 3-dB down point.
3D sound – a three-dimensional effect, in which sound can come from anywhere—directly behind to directly overhead to directly in front and all points to the left and right of the listener. Also called periphonic sound. Sometimes shown as 3-D sound.
3-head – see three-head.
3LCD – the brand name of a technology used in many video projectors that uses three LCD chips (one for each primary color: red, green, and blue). Although it was developed by Epson in the 1980s, it is marketed by 3LCD, a consortium of projector manufacturers that have licensed the technology.
3M Company – a corporation based in Maplewood, Minnesota, that was formerly known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, which produces a wide range of products, including adhesives, abrasives, laminates, electronic materials, medical products, and optical films. For many years it was known in the recording business as one of the main suppliers of magnetic recording tape.
3-spaced-microphone technique – see three-spaced-microphone technique.
3-pin XLR – an XLR cable or connector having three conductors.
3-point edit – see three-point edit.
3-to-1 rule or 3:1 rule – (1) A rule of thumb that states when two microphones are used to record a source, the microphones should be separated by at least three times the microphone-to-source distance. If you are recording two different sources, each microphone should be three times the distance from each other as the distance each mic is from its respective source. This rule is designed to minimize phase problems. (2) Another 3:1 rule states that a distant microphone should be 3 times as far away from the source as a close microphone. For example, if the mic is placed 12 inches away from an acoustic guitar, the room microphones should be at least 3 times that distance away from the first mic (36 inches) or 48 inches from the guitar. Sometimes called the rule of three, the 4-to-1 rule, or the 4:1 rule. See also 10-dB rule.
3-to-2 pull down – see 3:2 pull down.
3-track – the first commercial multitrack analog recording tape format introduced by by Ampex in the early 1960s. They were used for recording popular music in which the lead vocal was recorded on one track and the backing instruments were recorded on the other two tracks. These tracks could be used for overdubbing or to create a full stereo backing track. Three-track recorders were in widespread use in recording studios until the mid-1960s, when 4-track recorders came into use. See also chart of multitrack tape formats.
3-track mix – a mix for a movie soundtrack in which the DME stems are each recorded on a separate track: one each for dialog, music, and effects.
3-track stereo – see three-channel stereo.
3U – see U.
3-way system – a speaker system in which a crossover splits the incoming signal into separate high-, mid-, and low-frequency signals and sends the lows to a woofer, mids to a midrange driver, and highs to a tweeter. This design improves the efficiency and enhances the clarity of the speakers. Also called a 3-way speaker system. See also 2-way system and 4-way system.
3 Zigma Audio – a subsidiary of ADK that produces a microphone system called CHI (Capsule/Head Amplifier Integration) that allows you to assemble a combination of capsules and bodies (containing head amps) to emulate a variety of microphones, both vintage and modern.
3/2 format – see 5.1 configuration.
3:2 pull down – a method of displaying movie film with a frame rate of 24 frames per second (fps) so it is compatible with 30-fps video and television broadcasts. With 3:2 pull down, the first frame of film is shown twice followed by the second frame shown three times before repeating the process with the third frame. Also called 3/2 pull down, 3-2 pull down, 3-to-2 pull down, 2:3 pull down, 2/3 pull down, 2-3 pull down, 2-to3 pull down, and 2:3:2:3 pull down, as well as spelled pulldown and pull-down. See drop-frame time code.
3/4 time – see time signature.
3.5-mm miniature plug – see miniature plug.
30-band equalizer – see one-third octave equalizer.
31-band equalizer – see one-third octave equalizer.
32-bit – (1) Can refer to a datapath width. (2) Can refer to a bit depth.
32-bit floating point – a method of expressing numeric values using floating point notation in the binary number system in which 23 bits are used to represent a number, 8 bits represent an exponent, and 1 bit represents the sign (positive or negative). While a 32-bit fixed point number (a number that has a fixed number of digits) can have 232 values, a 32-bit floating point number can have almost an unlimited number of values (positive and negative values from roughly 10-38 to 1038). Audio files with a 32-bit floating point bit depth have a theoretical dynamic range of about 1680 dB compared to 144 dB with 24-bit files. Besides increasing headroom, a 32-bit floating point format helps avoid clipping and rounding errors during signal processing and introduces less noise when dithering. However, 32-bit files are 50% bigger than 24-bit files.
32-track – an analog recording tape format with 32 parallel tracks usually on 2-inch tape used for multitrack recordings, similar to 8-track tapes. See also chart of multitrack tape formats.
33⅓ rpm – The standard playing speed used for the vinyl long-play (LP) record. The speed was created by Western Electric in 1925 for the film industry. Before soundtracks were added directly to the film, the sound was reproduced from records. Since a 78-rpm record only lasted 2 minutes, a slower speed was needed for use with an 11-minute movie reel. A synchronous motor operating on 60-cycle power with a gear ratio of 108 produces 33⅓ rpm. When the soundtrack was added to the film stock, this record speed was retained for other purposes. (2) Often used as a synonym for a 12-inch vinyl LP record, usually without the “rpm”. Sometimes called 33-rpm.
35-mm film – the size of photographic film most commonly used for motion pictures, as well as still photography. The film comes in strips that are 34.98 ±0.03 millimeters (mm) (1.377 ±0.001 inches) wide. The standard movie film has four perforations per frame along both edges, resulting in 16 frames per foot of film, while still photography film has eight perforations on each side.
303 – short for the Roland TB-303 Bass Line.
312 – short for the API 312.
+4 – usually refers to +4 dBu.
4 buttons in – see all-button mode.
4-buttons mode – see all-button mode.
4-buttons trick – see all-button mode.
4-cable method (4CM) – a method of connecting a guitar and effects pedals to a guitar amplifier that has an effects loop. This method provides a way to connect effects that typically go in front of the amplifier (compressors, overdrives, and wah) into the amplifier input, while connecting those effects that optimally are placed in the effects loop (delay, reverb, and chorus) to be routed from the send and back into the return.
4-channel stereo – see quadraphonic.
+4 dBu – the standard pro audio voltage reference level equal to 1.228 volts RMS (Vrms). It is the level equal to 0 VU for a 1000 Hz tone for most professional equipment. Compare with -10 dBV.
4K resolution – the designation for one of two ultra-high-definition television resolutions: 3840 × 2160 pixels or 4096 × 2160 pixels, with four times as many pixels as 1080p. Sometimes called 2160p. See also 8K resolution.
4-point edit – see four-point edit.
4-to-1 rule or 4:1 rule – see 3-to-1 rule.
4-track – an analog recording tape format in which there are four parallel tracks on the tape, with each track taking up ¼ of the tape width. Originally four-track was on reel-to-reel tape machines using ¼-inch tape. Introduced in the early 1960s, these machines were used in recording studios as multitrack recorders with all four tracks being recorded in the same direction. This format was the primary recording format until it began to be replaced by 8-track recorders usually on ½-inch tape in the early 1970s. Four-track recorders for the consumer market used ¼-inch tape for stereo recording and playback. The stereo signal was on tracks 1 and 3. At the end of the tape, the reel could be flipped over with tracks 2 and 4 now in the 1 and 3 position. Cassette tapes also had four tracks, but on ⅛-inch tape. Also called quarter-track. See also chart of multitrack tape formats.
4-track cartridge – a short-lived format for analog tape reproduction used primarily in automobiles developed by Carl Muntz. It used an endless-loop ¼-inch-wide (6.4 mm) analog recording tape, formatted into 4 tracks played two at a time (stereo). Unlike the 8-track cartridge with which it competed and looked similar to, it did not automatically change tracks between programs, but had to be switched manually. It was soon replaced by the cassette. Also called a Muntz Stereo-Pak. See also Fidelipac.
4-way system – a speaker system in which a crossover splits the incoming signal into separate high-, high mid-, low mid-, and low-frequency signals and sends each frequency range to a separate driver (lows to a woofer, high mids and low mid to midrange drivers, and highs to a tweeter). This design improves the efficiency and enhances the clarity of the speakers. Also called a 4-way speaker system. See also 2-way system and 3-way system.
4:2:4 – a method of matrixing a 4-channel audio signal (left, right, center, and sides) into a two-channel, stereo-compatible format that can be broadcast or recorded and subsequently decoded back into four channels. See Dolby Motion Picture 4:2:4.
4 x 3 (4:3) – the standard aspect ratio for a standard-definition TV screen (PAL and NTSC), also expressed as 1.33:1, meaning the screen has 1.33 units of horizontal width for every 1 unit of vertical height. Video and TV images using an 4 x 3 aspect ratio will be displayed on an HDTV screen with black bars on the sides of the image (pillarboxing). HDTV has a 16 x 9 aspect ratio.
4/4 time – see time signature.
44 – short for the RCA 44 microphone.
45 rpm – (1) The standard playing speed for the 7-inch vinyl single. The 45-rpm single had a large spindle opening of about 1.5 inches because the automation of early juke boxes could handle them easier. (2) Often used as a synonym for a 7-inch vinyl record, usually without the “rpm”.
47 – short for the Neumann U 47 microphone.
414 – short for the AKG C 414 microphone.
421 – short for the Sennheiser MD 421 microphone.
480i – the designation for a television picture with an interlaced image with 480 lines of vertical resolution scanned alternately. It is the NTSC system or the DTV version having the same specifications, with the “i” meaning interlaced. Although NTSC has 525 lines, the digital version only uses 483. This is considered to be standard-definition television, along with 576i for PAL/SECAM. Sometimes shown as 480I.
480L – short for the Lexicon 480L.
480p – the designation for a television picture with an progressive scan image with 480 lines of vertical resolution, where the “p” stands for progressive scan (non-interlaced). It is considered enhanced-definition television (EDTV), since the quality is greater than standard-definition television. Sometimes shown as 480P.
4000 – short for the SSL 4000 consoles.
4038 – short for the Coles 4038.
4320p – see 8K resolution.
5 GHz band – the range of radio frequencies from 5.15 GHz to 5.85 GHz, which is unlicensed and used for many communications applications, including Wi-Fi manufacturers for the transmission of wireless microphone signals. See also 700 MHz band, 2.4 GHz band, and 6 GHz band.
5-way binding post – a binding post terminal used for speaker-level signals, that accepts five types of connections: (a) bare speaker wire, (b) pin connectors, (c) spade connectors, (d) banana plugs, and (e) dual banana plugs. Not all binding post connectors are considered 5-way, because they do not accommodate all of these connection types.
5.1 – the surround sound format developed by MPEG for digital soundtrack encoding for film, videotapes, DVD, and HDTV broadcasts. The “5” refers to the five discrete channels: left front, right front, center front, left surround, and right surround. The “.1” refers to the subwoofer channel or the special effects/feature channel. Sometimes called a 3/2 format referring to three front speakers and two surround speakers. See ITU-R BS.775
5.1.2 – the immersive sound configuration, similar to 5.1 surround sound, but having two additional height speakers. The “.2” refers to the height channels. It consists of three front speakers, two surround speakers, an LFE channel, and two overhead channels.
5.1.4 – the immersive sound configuration, similar to 5.1 surround sound, but having four additional height speakers. The “.4” refers to the height channels. It consists of three front speakers, two surround speakers, an LFE channel, and four overhead channels.
55 – short for the Shure Unidyne 55.
56K – can refer to Motorola DSP56000.
57 – short for the Shure SM-57.
58 – short for the Shure SM-58.
500 series – an industry standard developed by API for mounting modules, such as mic preamps, equalizers, compressor, limiters, etc. from a large number of manufacturers. It consists of a hardware frame (called a 500-series chassis or rack) into which 500-series modules are mounted. The chassis typically provides power for the installed modules, input and output connections, and sometimes additional proprietary functions. The 500-series chasses are available in sizes to hold various numbers of modules. They fit in 19-inch 3U racks or in tabletop or portable formats. The slang for a modules is a lunchbox, but API has now registered the trademark as API Lunchbox®.
500-series chassis – see 500 series.
500-series module – see 500 series.
500-series rack – see 500 series.
550 – short for the API 550.
576i – the designation for a television picture with an interlaced image with 576 lines of vertical resolution scanned alternately, with the “i” meaning interlaced. It is the system used in much of the world where the electric power is 50 Hz, typically where PAL/SECAM was the analog standard with 625 lines, although only 576 lines were used in the image. This is considered to be standard-definition television, along with 480i for NTSC. Sometimes shown as 576I.
56000 – can refer to Motorola DSP56000.
6 GHz band – The range of radio frequencies from 5.925 GHZ to 6.425 GHz, a part of the HF region. Among other things, it is used by some manufacturers for the transmission of wireless microphone signals. See also VHF, UHF, 700 MHz band, and 2.4 GHz band.
6.1 – an extended version of 5.1 surround sound called Dolby Digital EX (previously Dolby Digital ES) which adds one rear center channel to the basic 5.1 setup.
6/8 time – see time signature.
64-bit – can refer to a datapath width.
67 – short for the Neumann U 67 microphone.
600-MHz auction – see incentive auction.
600-MHz band – the portion of the radio frequency spectrum from 600 to 699 MHz, that at one time was used for UHF television broadcasting in the US. This band was reallocated by the FCC in 2008 during the incentive auction so that it could be used by used by broadband wireless devices, such as smart phones. This reallocation also affected wireless microphones operating in this band
642 – short for the Electro Voice 642 Cardiline shotgun microphone.
670 – short for the Fairchild 670 Compressor/Limiter.
7-segment display – see segmented display.
7.1 – an extended version of 5.1 surround sound used by Dolby True HD, Dolby Digital Plus, and Dolby Pro Logic IIx, in which left rear and right rear channels are added to the basic 5.1 setup.
7.1.2 – the immersive sound configuration, similar to 7.1 surround sound, but having two additional height speakers. The “.2” refers to the height channels. It consists of three front speakers, four surround speakers, an LFE channel, and two overhead channels.
7.1.4 – the immersive sound configuration, similar to 7.1 surround sound, but having four additional height speakers. The “.4” refers to the height channels. It consists of three front speakers, four surround speakers, an LFE channel, and four overhead channels.
70-volt system – a type of loudspeaker distribution system typically used for PAs where transformers are used at the output of a power amplifier and at each speaker to provide a constant voltage of 70.7 volts so that multiple speakers can be used. See also 100-volt system.
77 – short for the RCA 77 microphone.
78-rpm – (1) The standard playing speed for the original phonograph record, which was standardized around 1925. (Prior to that there was no standard, and recording speeds varied from 60 to over 100 rpm.) The exact speed depends upon the frequency of the ac power. For countries with 60-Hz power, the speed was 78.261 rpm, which resulted from a 3600-rpm synchronous motor having a gear reduction of 46:1. For 50-Hz power the actual speed was 77.922 rpm, the results of a 3000-rpm synchronous motor being reduced by 77:2. (2) Often used as a synonym for a 10-inch shellac record, usually without the “rpm”.
700 MHz band – The range of radio frequencies from 698 MHz to 806 MHz, part of the UHF region. Although currently banned by the FCC for use by wireless microphones, the use of this band was allowed for this purpose prior to 2010. See also VHF, 6 GHz band, and 2.4 GHz band.
720p – the designation for a television picture with a progressive scan image with 720 lines of vertical resolution, where the “p” stands for progressive scan (non-interlaced). It is considered high-definition television (HDTV), but it uses less bandwidth than 1080i or 1080p. Sometimes shown as 720P.
8a – abbreviation for ottava.
8-bit – can refer to a datapath width.
8K resolution – one of the resolutions for ultra-high-definition television with 7680 x 4320 pixels, having sixteen times as many pixels as 1080p. Sometimes called 4320p.See also 4K resolution.
8-mm video – a general term referring to three different videocassette formats: Video 8 (analog), Hi 8 (analog), and Digital 8 (digital). These formats were used primarily by amateur camcorder users, but were occasionally used in professional television production. The three cassettes all use 8-mm wide recording tape and are very similar in size, but are not truly compatible with one another and use different encoding techniques. The 8-mm tape size was a smaller successor to the 12-mm Betamax format, chosen to compete with VHS-C compact camcorders.
8 to 14 modulation – see eight-to-fourteen modulation.
8-track – an analog recording tape format in which there are eight parallel tracks usually on ½-inch tape used for multitrack recordings. The first 8-track recorder was specially made for Les Paul by Ampex, and was installed in his home recording studio in 1957. However, this format did not come into widespread use until the 1970s. Within a few years, 16-tracks, then 24-tracks, and even 32-tracks became the common formats. Tape widths also increased from ½-inch to 1-inch and then 2-inch. See also chart of multitrack tape formats.
8-track cartridge – a popular but short-lived format for analog tape reproduction used primarily in automobiles. It used an endless-loop ¼-inch-wide (6.4 mm) analog recording tape, formatted into 8 tracks played two at a time (stereo). At the end of each program, it switched to the next track automatically, unlike the similar-appearing 4-track cartridge with which it competed that had to be switched manually. It was soon replaced by the cassette. Also called Stereo 8, 8-track tape, (or simply 8-track), and Lear cartridge after it inventor, William Powell Lear, who designed the LearJet. See also Fidelipac and Quad-8, the quadraphonic version of the 8-track cartridge.
8va – abbreviation for All' ottava alta. See ottava.
8va alta – abbreviation for All' ottava alta. See ottava.
8va bassa – abbreviation for All' ottava bassa. See ottava.
8vb – abbreviation for All' ottava bassa. See ottava.
83 dB SPL – the standard listening level for motion pictures. This level was originally proposed by Dolby Labs in the mid-1970s and was originally used to calibrate 0 VU when using analog magnetic film. When film converted to digital technology, the VU meter was rapidly replaced by the peak program meter. For home theater systems, many authorities recommend lowering the listening level by 6 dB, because a typical home listening room does not accomModate high SPLs and wide dynamic range. It has been suggested that the same level should be used for mixing audio, especially for pop music. To calibrate a monitor to the movie-listening level, play a standardized pink noise calibration signal with an amplitude of -20 dB FS RMS through one monitoring channel at a time. Adjust the monitor gain to yield 83 dB SPL using a C-weighted sound level meter with a slow response. Set the gain to 0 dB as the reference. For most music, the monitor gain will be 6 dB below this reference.
87 – short for the Neumann U 87 microphone.
802.11 – a family of specifications established by the IEEE for use by wireless local area networks (LANs). There are a number of specifications for 802.11, each having a unique set of transmission methods and data rates. These include 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n. See table below. See also Wi-Fi.
|Frequency Range(s)*||Method of
|Maximum Data Rate
|802.11a||5 GHz band||OFDM||54|
|802.11b||2.4 GHz band||CSMA/CA||11|
|802.11g||2.4 GHz band||OFDM||54|
|802.11n||2.4 GHz band
or 5 GHz band
*The radio frequencies specified for 802.11 vary by country. These are the US frequencies.
8028 – short for the Neve 8028.
808 – short for the Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer.
9.1 – an extended version of 7.1 surround sound, in which two additional side channels are added to the basic 7.1 setup.
9.1.2 – the immersive sound configuration, similar to 7.1 surround sound, but having two additional height speakers. The “.2” refers to the height channels. It consists of three front speakers, six surround speakers, an LFE channel, and two overhead channels.
9.1.4 – the immersive sound configuration, similar to 7.1 surround sound, but having four additional height speakers. The “.4” refers to the height channels. It consists of three front speakers, six surround speakers, an LFE channel, and four overhead channels.
9.1.6 – the immersive sound configuration, similar to 7.1 surround sound, but having six additional height speakers. The “.6” refers to the height channels. It consists of three front speakers, six surround speakers, an LFE channel, and six overhead channels.
9-pin – a slang term for a 9-pin D-Sub connector, used by many manufacturers for their synchronization protocols.
9-segment display – see segmented display.
94 dB-SPL – the sound pressure level equal to 1 pascal (newtons per square meter). Microphone sensitivity is the output voltage, usually measured with a 1-kHz sine wave at a 94 dB-SPL level, expressed as mv or dBV.
909 – short for the Roland TR-909 Rhythm Composer.
Note: We believe this is the largest dictionary (glossary) of terms specific to usage within the recording industry that is currently available on the internet, with more than 8,500 entries, nearly 600 illustrations, and dozens of tables. Some of the terms have different or additional meanings in other situations, especially within the electronic, automotive, scientific, and computer industries. Of necessity there are obvious overlaps into other fields such as music, electronics, and computers, but such excursions are limited to information deemed pertinent to the knowledge required to operate and/or participate effectively in the workings of a recording studio. Also included are terms related to sound reinforcement (live performances) including wireless microphone technology because a working knowledge of that terminology is necessary for recording at live performance venues. Because recording studios also record audio for video and motion pictures (films), some terminology from those fields is included. Some scientific terms are included because they help explain studio terminology. For example, electromagnetism explains how microphones, loudspeakers, and guitar pickups work. Knowledge of radio waves and the radio frequency spectrum is needed to explain wireless devices. Any trademarks or trade names mentioned belong to their respective owners. The information contained in this dictionary is believed to be accurate at the time of publication. This information is subject to change without notice. The information was obtained from and cross-checked with a variety of sources that are believed to be reliable. However, Los Senderos Studio, LLC does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the information contained herein. Please contact us to report any errors, omissions, discrepancies, or broken links. Los Senderos Studio shall not be responsible for any consequences or damages arising out of the use of this information. Nothing in this glossary should be interpreted as legal advice. For a glossary providing information on legal and business matters for musicians, we suggest you consult Musicians Business Dictionary.
A note on alphabetical order: The terms in this glossary are alphabetical without regard to spaces and punctuation. For example, AM Radio follows amplitude. While this may seem to be at odds with other conventions, it eliminates confusion with words such as pickup, which is sometimes written as pick up or pick-up. In addition, all symbols such as &, -, or / are ignored. The entries on the number page (0-9) are listed in increasing value within each digit. For example, all of the entries beginning with 1 are listed before those starting with 2. For Greek letters (α-ω), the entries are in Greek alphabetical order.