Los Senderos Studio
 Issue 82 July 2016 

Our New Look

After nearly seven years with the same format for this newsletter, we are finally making a design change. When we started the newsletter, most people opened their email on a desktop computer. Today more than 60% read their emails on a smart phone or tablet. So I have been urged to make my newsletter more mobile friendly. I'm not sure why. I've always just turned my phone sideways to read the newsletter and it looks fine. But I guess that's not really mobile friendly. So here it is ... our new mobile-friendly newsletter design. Let me know if you like it.

Words from the Glossary

Our glossary continues to grow, now having over 7200 entries. This month we take a look at panning.

This month's terms: pan, panning panoramic potentiometer, panpot stereo, true stereo pan depth, pan law. (Note: Click on the term to view its definition in the glossary.)


Panning is the process of adjusting or positioning an audio signal between the left and right sides of a stereo image using a panoramic potentiometer. A panoramic potentiometer is the control used for that purpose and can be either a knob or slider. It is sometimes called a pan control, panpot, or simply a pan. Pan as a noun can also mean the position within the stereo image or as a verb to adjust the signal within the stereo image.


One of the many things done during mixing is to ajust the pan for each track. A skilled mixer will adjust various instruments and vocal elements to carefully place each of them at various distances side to side within the stereo image so that they are well balanced. Typically you want to place similar sounding instruments at equal distances on opoposite sides.

This process is known as panpot stereo. It involves using multiple microphones, one for each voice, instrument, or group of instruments, each recorded on its own track and panned in varying amounts to produce directional information based on the intensity of the signal within the image. It is an an alternative to true stereo. With true stereo, the recording is made using two, sometimes three, microphones to capture the level differences, timing differences, and phase differences that the human ear interprets as directional information.

The pan law (also called the pan rule) is a principle that states that with perfect loudspeakers and perfect room acoustics any two audio signals of equal amplitude and phase that are mixed together in both channels of a stereo system will increase the loudness by 6.02 dB-SPL. In reality, this ideal situation rarely occurs making it necessary to adjust the pan depth. Pan depth is simply an adjustment to make the pan law work in the real world.

David Rose, hit number one with his instrumental "The Stripper" in July, 1962. He was also an Emmy-Award-winning composer of many theme songs of television shows, including "Bonanza" and "Little House on the Prairie." At one point, there were 22 different shows on the air using his themes.

The Beatles were paid $3,500 per show to appear on the Ed Sullivan Show. Their expenses to bring them to America was more than $50,000.

Robert Todd Storz, the director of radio station KWOH in Omaha, Nebraska, during the 1950s, is credited with creating the Top 40 radio format. He noticed that certain songs received great response from the record-buying public and that people tended to play those songs over and over on jukeboxes. He began surveying record stores and jukeboxes to see which songs were the most popular each week. He then expanded his stable of radio stations gradually converting them all to the Top 40 format.

Free Studio Time

Want to receive some free recording time in the studio? If you refer someone to Los Senderos Studio and they come in for a recording session, I will give you two free hours of recording time. That's a $50 value. Simply send the name of your referal on an email. As soon as they come in to record, I will credit you with a two-hour session. What could be easier?

Los Senderos Studio, LLC

A Recording Studio in the Hill Country.

8409 N US Highway 281 ★ Blanco, TX 78606-5024
Phone: 512-565-0446 ★ Email: Larry@LosSenderosStudio.com

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